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21st June 2018

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Month: April 2018

$28 billion funding package for Auckland roading and public transport projects unveiled

A $28 billion transport programme has been unveiled for Auckland in what’s been described by the Government and Auckland Mayor Phil Goff as the country’s largest ever civil construction programme.

Its backers say the work will help create a 21st century transport network for the city.

“Together, we will invest $28 billion over the next decade to unlock Auckland’s potential. We will be building vital projects including light rail, Penlink and Mill Rd, heavy rail and bus upgrades, safety improvements, and more dedicated cycle lanes,” said Transport Minister Phil Twyford.

The investments are made possible by a $4.4b funding boost resulting from the Auckland regional fuel tax (RFT), increased revenue from the National Land Transport Fund, and a new funding mechanism, Crown Infrastructure Partners, Twyford and Goff said at Newmarket railway station.

Earlier today, the Herald reported the Government will fund two major new roading projects in Auckland.

One is Penlink, in the north, providing a new connection between the Whangaparaoa Peninsula and the Northern Motorway. Motorists will pay a toll to use the road – a measure National has criticised as a “triple whammy” for motorists.

The other project is Mill Rd in the south, improving the connection from Manukau through Takanini to Drury.

Both roads have been favoured projects of the former National-led Government. But until today they did not feature among the key elements of the Labour-led Government’s transport strategy for the city.

Projects in the joint Government-Auckland transport programme, known as Auckland Transport Alignment Project (ATAP), include:

• Committed projects like the City Rail Link and Northern Motorway improvements.
• Light rail, or modern trams.
• Eastern busway (Panmure-Botany).
• Airport-Puhinui State Highway upgrade, including a high quality public transport link to an upgraded Puhinui railway station.
• Bus priority programme, to more rapidly grow Auckland’s bus lane network and support faster, more reliable and more efficient bus services.
• Albany-Silverdale bus improvements.
• Lower cost East West Link to address key freight issues in the area.
• Papakura-Drury motorway widening.
• First phase of the Mill Rd corridor.
• Penlink road (motorists will pay a toll to help fund this).
• Walking and cycling programme to expand the network and complete key connections, such as Sky Path.
• Significant programme of safety improvements.
• New transport infrastructure to enable greenfield growth
• Network optimisation and technology programme to make the best use of our existing network.
• Rail network improvements including electrification to Pukekohe, additional trains and other track upgrades.

“This plan is funded to deliver the projects we are committed to,” Twyford said.

“The previous ATAP report, released by former Transport Minister Simon Bridges in August 2017, had a $5.9 billion funding gap. National had no plan to fix that fiscal hole, which would have meant the projects they promised couldn’t have been delivered.

“This $28 billion plan will help ease the awful congestion that has been caused by a decade of under-investment. We will create a congestion-free rapid transit network and boost other alternatives to driving to help free up the roads, enable growth, and improve safety for drivers and others.”

Goff said: “ATAP balances the need to deal with Auckland’s immediate and pressing transport needs, as well as being transformational for the future.

“ATAP reflects the need for efficient roading for green and brownfield housing development, new transport corridors and major arterial routes. But as Auckland grows we need to move from a focus on roading to a more balanced approach that promotes public transport and active transport networks.

“Auckland has to contribute its share and the regional fuel tax allows us to do that. The more than $4 billion expenditure it unlocks is critically important to progressing a better transport system for Auckland.

“To raise the same sum from rates would result in a total rate increase of over 13 per cent this year. Alternatively, to do nothing would see Auckland become increasingly gridlocked.

“New forms of revenue such as an RFT to invest in our transport network and light rail to supplement buses, ferries and heavy rail are critical for an efficient and effective Auckland transport system. Auckland’s growth means additional investment in these areas is vital for us to tackle congestion problems,” Goff said.

“ATAP represents a significant increase in investment in our transport network, but we still need to find innovative ways to fund further development such as PPPs [public-private partnerships], special purpose vehicles or infrastructure bonds.”

ATAP includes $1.8b in funding for light rail. A work programme is under way to leverage sources of investment capital outside of ATAP for light rail, and an announcement will be made soon.

Under ATAP, Auckland is expected to receive 38 per cent of the National Land Transport Fund over the next decade, proportionate with the region’s growing share of New Zealand’s population.

However, Goff says that this “still falls short of Auckland’s projected 55 per cent share of the country’s population growth over the next decade”.

Read more, including the Auckland Transport Alignment Project documment and the video announcement from Phil Goff and Phil Twyford here.

Blockchain Is About to Revolutionize the Shipping Industry

  • Maersk, APL, Hyundai race to build paperless cargo system
  • Adoption of blockchain could generate $1 trillion in trade
Gantry cranes at the Port of Long Beach in California. Photographer: Tim Rue/Bloomberg

Globalization has brought the most advanced trading networks the world has seen, with the biggest, fastest vessels, robot-operated ports and vast computer databases tracking cargoes. But it all still relies on millions and millions of paper documents.

That last throwback to 19th century trade is about to fall. A.P. Moeller-Maersk A/S and other container shipping lines have teamed up with technology companies to upgrade the world’s most complex logistics network.

The prize is a revolution in world trade on a scale not seen since the move to standard containers in the 1960s — a change that ushered in the age of globalization. But the undertaking is as big as the potential upheaval it will cause. To make it work, dozens of shipping lines and thousands of related businesses around the world — including manufacturers, banks, insurers, brokers and port authorities — will have to work out a protocol that can integrate all the new systems onto one vast platform.

Should they succeed, documentation that takes days will eventually be done in minutes, much of it without the need for human input. The cost of moving goods across continents could drop dramatically, adding fresh impetus to relocate manufacturing or source materials and goods from overseas.

“This would be the biggest innovation in the industry since the containerization,” said Rahul Kapoor, an analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence in Singapore. “It basically brings more transparency and efficiency. The container shipping lines are coming out of their shells and playing catch-up in technology.”

The key, as in so many other industries, from oil tankers to cryptocurrencies, is blockchain, the electronic ledger system that allows transactions to be verified autonomously. And the benefits wouldn’t be confined to shipping. Improving communications and border administration using blockchain could generate an additional $1 trillion in global trade, according to the World Economic Forum.

APL Ltd., owned by the world’s third-largest container line CMA CGM SA, together with Anheuser-Busch InBev NV, Accenture Plc, a European customs organization and other companies said last month that they’ve tested a blockchain-based platform. South Korea’s Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. held trial runs last year using a system developed with Samsung SDS Co.

Containers are loaded onto automated guided vehicles during testing at Port of Long Beach in California in 2015.

Photographer: Tim Rue/Bloomberg

The shipping paper trail begins when a cargo owner books space on a ship to move goods. Documents need to be filled in and approved before cargo can enter or leave a port. A single shipment can require hundreds pages that need to be physically delivered to dozens of different agencies, banks, customs bureaus and other entities.

Trail of Roses

In 2014, Maersk followed a refrigerated container filled with roses and avocados from Kenya to the Netherlands. The company found that almost 30 people and organizations were involved in processing the box on its journey to Europe. The shipment took about 34 days to get from the farm to the retailers, including 10 days waiting for documents to be processed. One of the critical documents went missing, only to be found later amid a pile of paper.

“The paperwork and processes vital to global trade are also one of its biggest burdens,” according to Maersk, the world’s largest container shipping company, which has teamed up with International Business Machines Corp. to enable real-time tracking of its cargo and documents using blockchain. “The paper trail research that Maersk did uncovered the extent of the burden that documents and processes inflict on trade and the consequences.”

That plethora of paper processors has been one of the reasons shipping has lagged behind other industries in moving to electronic forms. The variety of different languages, laws and organizations involved in moving cargoes in the past made standardization a slow process.

An illustration of the Great Tea Race of 1866 between the clipper ships Taeping and the Ariel.

Source: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images

Instead the industry has relied on advances in transport technology and cargo handling to improve efficiency, with the great Clipper sailing vessels replaced by steamships and then modern oil-powered leviathans – the largest ships on the oceans. In the 1850s, it took more than three months to move chests of tea from southern China to London. Today, that journey would take about 30 days.

The biggest change came in the 1960s, when the industry adopted the standard-size steel boxes in use today, replacing the wooden crates, chests and sacks that stevedores had hauled on the docks for centuries.

With these containers sometimes holding products from different suppliers, and ship cargoes sometimes ending up with thousands of customers in dozens of countries, the transition to a uniform electronic system presents major challenges.

“Not all stakeholders are looking at deploying the same blockchain solution and platforms,” APL said in response to questions. “This can pose as a challenge if stakeholders are expected to trade via a common platform or solution.”

Workers handle cargo at the Royal Victoria Dock in London in the 1930s.

Photographer: Guildhall Library & Art Gallery/Heritage Images via Getty Images

And the shipping lines will also need to persuade the ports and other organizations involved in cargo trading to adopt their systems. Maersk said Singapore-based port operator PSA International Pte. and APM Terminals, based in The Hague, Netherlands, will use its platform. APL and Accenture said they plan to pilot their product by the end of this year. Accenture said it has tested its technology with other pilot shipments that range from beer to medical supplies.

The cost savings could be visible in the companies’ financial statements in about two years, Kapoor of Bloomberg Intelligence said.

“Shipping needs to stop thinking about itself as this standalone middle sector,” said K D Adamson, chief executive officer of Futurenautics Group. “It needs to start thinking about how the different elements of shipping fit into other ecosystems.”

How Ports Can Help to Cut Shipping CO2

Ports play an important role in reducing the global carbon footprint of maritime shipping, says a new report by the International Transport Forum.

Greenhouse gas emissions from shipping currently represent around 2.6% of total global emissions. Without reduction measures, this share could more than triple by 2050.

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) last week set a target of reducing shipping CO2 emissions by “at least” 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 levels. To achieve this, stringent measures now need to be put into place.

While the focus is naturally on the ships themselves, portside measures can significantly add to the environmental performance of shipping and the decarbonisation of maritime transport, the ITF report says.

Today, 28 of the 100 world’s largest ports (in terms of total cargo volume handled) offer incentives for environmentally-friendly ships:

• Some US ports offer reductions for ships reducing speed when approaching the port.
• The Panama Canal Authority provides priority slot allocation to greener ships.
• Spain includes environmental incentives in the tender and license criteria for the towage services provided in ports.
• Shanghai has an emission-trading scheme that includes ports and domestic shipping.

However, green incentives typically apply to than 5% of the ships calling at a port with an incentive scheme. Only five ports use CO2 emissions a substantial criterion for incentives.

Thus any incentives that ship-owners currently have to order more efficient ships with lower emissions can only to a very small extent be a result of port-based incentives.

The report thus recommends to:

• acknowledge the important role of ports in mitigating shipping emissions
• expand port-based incentives for low-emission ships;
• Link port-based incentives to actual greenhouse gas emissions; and
• move to a more harmonised application of green port fees.

“Ports clearly play a hugely important role in helping the shipping sector to manage the transition to clean shipping”, said Olaf Merk, ports and shipping expert at ITF. “Port-based incentives for greenhouse emission mitigation could provide an important supporting role.”

The work for the report was carried out with support from the Environmental Defense Fund Europe.

World’s first electrified road for charging vehicles opens in Sweden

The world’s first electrified road that recharges the batteries of cars and trucks driving on it has been opened in Sweden.

About 2km (1.2 miles) of electric rail has been embedded in a public road near Stockholm, but the government’s roads agency has already drafted a national map for future expansion.

Sweden’s target of achieving independence from fossil fuel by 2030 requires a 70% reduction in the transport sector.

The technology behind the electrification of the road linking Stockholm Arlanda airport to a logistics site outside the capital city aims to solve the thorny problems of keeping electric vehicles charged, and the manufacture of their batteries affordable.

Energy is transferred from two tracks of rail in the road via a movable arm attached to the bottom of a vehicle. The design is not dissimilar to that of a Scalextric track, although should the vehicle overtake, the arm is automatically disconnected.

The electrified road is divided into 50m sections, with an individual section powered only when a vehicle is above it.

When a vehicle stops, the current is disconnected. The system is able to calculate the vehicle’s energy consumption, which enables electricity costs to be debited per vehicle and user.

The “dynamic charging” – as opposed to the use of roadside charging posts – means the vehicle’s batteries can be smaller, along with their manufacturing costs.

A former diesel-fuelled truck owned by the logistics firm, PostNord, is the first to use the road.

Hans Säll, chief executive of the eRoadArlanda consortium behind the project, said both current vehicles and roadways could be adapted to take advantage of the technology.

In Sweden there are roughly half a million kilometres of roadway, of which 20,000km are highways, Säll said.

“If we electrify 20,000km of highways that will definitely be be enough,” he added. “The distance between two highways is never more than 45km and electric cars can already travel that distance without needing to be recharged. Some believe it would be enough to electrify 5,000km.”

Building the eRoadArlanda: the government’s roads agency has already drafted a national map for future expansion.

At a cost of €1m per kilometre, the cost of electrification is said to be 50 times lower than that required to construct an urban tram line.

Säll said: “There is no electricity on the surface. There are two tracks, just like an outlet in the wall. Five or six centimetres down is where the electricity is. But if you flood the road with salt water then we have found that the electricity level at the surface is just one volt. You could walk on it barefoot.”

National grids are increasingly moving away from coal and oil and battery storage is seen as crucial to a changing the source of the energy used in transportation.

The Swedish government, represented by a minister at the formal inauguration of the electrified road on Wednesday, is in talks with Berlin about a future network. In 2016, a 2km stretch of motorway in Sweden was adapted with similar technology but through overhead power lines at lorry level, making it unusable for electric cars.

Coastal Bulk Shipping increasing cargo business through Whanganui Port

Coastal Bulk Shipping operator Doug Smith is optimistic the company can develop its bulk cargo operations.
Coastal Bulk Shipping operator Doug Smith is optimistic the company can develop its bulk cargo operations.

Doug Smith runs Coastal Bulk Shipping, a company he and a “family” of relatives and friends have owned since 2010.

The company owns and operates the MV Anatoki, a small Whanganui-based vessel that moves bulk cargo between ports around New Zealand.

Mr Smith says the business is growing and there is significant potential for further growth.

“For the calendar year to the end of December we moved slightly over 20,000 tons of cargo.

“We picked up some business as a result of the Kaikoura earthquake [which took out road and rail links] but we have continued to build on that cargo. For the first three months of this year we have done over 7000 tons of cargo and that’s with the South Island’s road and rail back in full swing.

“We’re working on some significant potential growth and working to develop the cargo.”

The Anatoki primarily brings grain up from the South Island, transports dolomite from Golden Bay and takes urea from Kapuni to various South Island ports. It also transports about 100,000 posts per year to Marlborough vineyards.

“The main change has been the northbound grain and dolomite is starting to build again,” Mr Smith said.

“Dolomite will be coming through as chip and be processed for aerial spreading. These are niche markets that we are trying to continue to develop.

“River ports were the mainstay of ports in New Zealand 100 years ago but now Whanganui is the only river port currently operating. Its history is significant as far as maritime people in New Zealand are concerned.

“I’m sure west coast ports will start moving forward in the not-too-distant future and hope we will be part of that.”

The planned redevelopment of the port should have little impact on Coastal Bulk Shipping.

“The [Whanganui District] Council needs some credit – most councils in New Zealand wouldn’t have spent the money they did on the port,” Mr Smith said.

“Some of the smaller towns with ports have walked away from them. The council has enabled us to have some faith in the ongoing viability of the port and develop our cargo around that.”

Reactivating the rail line at the port would make sense and would significantly reduce the impact of road transport to move cargo but was not currently likely to happen, Mr Smith said.

MV Anatoki
MV Anatoki is a “handy little ship” which has its own following on Facebook and always attracts onlookers when it comes in and out over the Whanganui bar.

It is 51m long and can carry 800 tons of heavy bulk cargo – the equivalent of about 26 truck and trailer units. The 7000 tons of cargo moved so far this year equates to 233 truck and trailer loads.

The Anatoki is the only small coastal ship left in New Zealand and is able to negotiate shallow harbours such as Whanganui.

The ship is currently transporting dolomite from Bluff to Napier. It will then take fertiliser to Timaru and return with a load of barley.

Twyford says there is a “great deal of interest” in investing in New Zealand’s transport infrastructure

Minister of Transport Phil Twyford has sent a clear message to would-be investors in New Zealand’s transport infrastructure – “the Government is open for business.”

He is sending Associate Transport Minister Shane Jones on a fact-finding mission to Australia tomorrow to investigate the best ways investors can work with the Government on public-private partnerships (PPP).

“The message from our Government is we’re open for business,” Twyford said after addressing a business and local Government summit on the “changing direction in transport for New Zealand.”

Twyford says it is likely projects, such as Auckland’s light rail and rapid transit, will be funded in collaboration with the private sector through PPPs.

He says it’s too early to put a figure on how much the Government is expecting private capital providers to stump up with but says it’s likely to be on “multiple billion-dollar projects.”

Twyford says there has been a “great deal of interest” from parties looking at getting involved in a PPP with the Government.

“We’re very happy to work with private capital to make these big investments.”

The Government has previously indicated it would be looking at PPPs as a way to meet some of its investment expectations but, at the moment, the process for investors is too complex.

This is the reason Jones is heading off to Australia tomorrow.

“We need to configure ourselves better within the state so there is less static when either foreign or domestic investors approach the state to play a role in our infrastructure turbocharging,” Jones says.

 

But PPPs would require more debt from the Government.

Twyford says there are options when it comes to new revenue streams to help pay for this – for example, through land value capture and infrastructure bonds.

But the projects would be long-term and, according to Twyford, it would be “nuts to try and pay for it out of next year’s road user charges or a petrol tax.”

“We should be spreading that debt over multiple generations who are going to benefit from the infrastructure.”

But taking on more debt would be problematic.

As it stands, some of New Zealand’s council’s – including Auckland’s – are close to their debt limits and the Government has committed to reducing net core Crown debt levels to 20% of GDP by 2021/22.

But Twyford says there is a way the Government could take on more debt to fund the PPPs without abandoning its debt target and pushing councils over its limit.

“We intend to build on some of the work that was done by the previous Government in establishing Crown infrastructure partners as a special purpose vehicle.

“It’s a balance sheet that’s not council or Governments – it’s a public purpose hybrid if you like.”

He says through this, a lot of capital could be borrowed to pay for the infrastructure needs the country is facing.

Are ships more polluting than Germany?

The shipping industry is meeting in London to formulate a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

By some estimates, the international shipping industry produces as much carbon dioxide (CO2) as Germany.

Reality Check looks at the data behind this comparison and from where all this pollution is coming.

Engines on the world’s biggest ships can be as tall as a four-storey house, and as wide as three London buses. So a lot of fuel is required, which in turn creates a large amount of CO2.

Carbon dioxide is an example of a greenhouse gas. The greenhouse gas effect is the process of gases like CO2 trapping warmth in the atmosphere and heating up the planet.

International shipping accounts for about 2.2% of all global greenhouse gas emissions and 2.1% of CO2 emissions, according to the UN International Maritime Organisation’s most recent data.

Germany’s CO2 and overall greenhouse emissions account for about 2.2% and 1.9% of the world’s total respectively, according to European Commission’s most up-to-date figures – about the same percentages as the international shipping industry.

A country by country comparison can also be used as a device to demonstrate the scale of pollution in the shipping industry.

According to the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), an independent environmental research organisation, international shipping produced 812 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2015.

The ICCT said that if treated as a country, international shipping would be the sixth largest emitter of CO2 in 2015.

They pointed to a list of the top polluting countries compiled by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, part of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure. Public Works and Water Management, which puts international shipping as the sixth largest emitter of CO2.

The ICCT and Environmental Assessment Agency research both focused on CO2 produced by energy use and the ICCT said it removed domestic and fishing vessels, which would be covered by a country’s own count of emissions.

The IMO is also addressing the amount of sulphur in fuel oil used on board ships. It says a reduction in sulphur oxides that emanate from a ship should have significant environmental health benefits.

The World Shipping Council, an industry body, also says it is engaged in efforts to reduce CO2 and is “working to secure a global agreement addressing CO2 emissions from ships through the International Maritime Organization”.

International shipping is a catch-all term for shipping between ports of different countries and so excludes domestic transportation. There are many different types of vessels and each produces different levels of CO2.

The largest producers according to the ICCT are the biggest vessels; container ships, followed by the bulk carrier and the oil tanker. Container ships account for about one fifth of all emissions.

However, modern ships are designed to slide through the water more efficiently than older ones or are built to operate at lower speeds to save fuel.

For example, the largest of the Maersk container ships are reported to be 35% more fuel efficient than older, smaller vessels, according to Marine Insight.

Battery power is already being used on some ferries in Scotland and Norway and there are more radical Japanese plans for hi-tech sails to power cargo ships, says the BBC’s science editor David Shukman.

It is common for a ship to be registered under the state flag of a country that is different to the country of the ship owner.

It’s a process called flags of convenience and allows ships to sail under the maritime regulations of the flag they are registered under. On offer is access to cheaper labour and low taxes.

Many of the world’s ships sail under the Panamanian flag and most of the world fleet sail under the flags of developing nations, according to the IMO.

The top five ship-owning countries are Greece, Japan, China, Germany and Singapore.
Source: BBC

Shanghai world’s busiest container port: report

Shanghai was the world’s busiest container port in 2017, according to a report by shipping consultancy service Alphaliner. Shanghai handled a total of 40 million Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEUs) last year, an 8.3 percent increase from the previous year.

Singapore took second place, followed by Shenzhen, which ranked third on the list with 25 million TEU. Ningbo and Hong Kong were another two ports in China that made it into the top 10.

The Alphaliner report also says that, thanks to the recovery in the global economy, the world’s busiest container ports enjoyed a 5 percent increase and recorded a total volume of 600 million TEU in 2017.
Source: ECNS

New Zealand Transport Agency Chair appointed

Transport Minister Phil Twyford today announced the appointment of Michael Stiassny as Chair of the New Zealand Transport Agency Board.

Michael Stiassny has been appointed for a term of three years commencing on 19 April 2018.

“Michael Stiassny has a wealth of governance, leadership and financial knowledge having been involved in governance and corporate positions for the past three decades,” Phil Twyford says.

The NZ Transport Agency’s core functions are to plan and invest in New Zealand’s land transport networks through the National Land Transport Programme.

“This Government has a transformative agenda to rebalance the transport system toward better safety, access and value for money, along with more investment in regional and local roads and rail.

“The NZ Transport Agency has a crucial role to play in creating a modern and sustainable transport network across land transport modes. Michael Stiassny brings strong and decisive leadership to the Board.

“I’d like to thank Dame Fran Wilde who’s been acting chair over the past three months and acknowledge the contribution of Chris Moller who stood down in January,” Phil Twyford says.

Lyttelton Port issued with further strike notice

Statement from LPC

Lyttelton Port has today received a further notice of strike action for 26 April to 29 April by the Rail and Maritime Transport Union (RMTU) for approximately 11 Marine staff. Strike action by this small group will close the Port.

LPC will therefore pay none of RMTU’s 191 members for the days – or any other day(s) the Company receives a strike notice for.

LPC Chief Executive Peter Davie says the Company has no option but to take this course of action.

“What is particularly disruptive about the strike notice served today is that it is for only a very small number of RMTU members – just approximately 11 of its 191 members at the Port. The approximate 11 striking RMTU members operate the launch which delivers our pilots to vessels when they arrive at the head of the harbour and must have pilot guidance to reach our Port.

When the RMTU members who operate the launch go on strike, the Pilots can’t reach the vessels so ships cannot get in or out of the Port. That means there is no shipping. The approximate 180 RMTU members not striking know that. They intend to come to work, do nothing and get paid.

“This tactic will not work.

“I want to make this very clear. The RMTU strike notice may be for only approximately 11 of its members but none of its 191 members will be paid for any day for which we receive a strike notice.

“We are taking this step as a direct response to the Union’s tactic of causing maximum disruption to customers and businesses in the region while trying to ensure its members don’t lose money.

“The Union has refused our very generous offer which is well above inflation.

This offer is well above recent RMTU settlements with other New Zealand Ports.

“The dispute is about only one thing – the RMTU wants a better settlement than the other major Union at our Port – the Maritime Union of New Zealand (MUNZ).

“The RMTU claims it wants the same offer we made MUNZ – but it has rejected it. The RMTU members want the same salary increases as MUNZ but they will not make the roster changes MUNZ agreed to as part of their offer.

“RMTU members have already lost more pay than their negotiators can possibly recover for them – and the longer the Union refuses our offer the more its members will lose.

“Meanwhile the Union’s tactics are causing significant disruption to shipping lines, importers, exporters and our region.

“We remain committed to resolving the dispute but do not see any justification for amending our very generous offer.”

 

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